Chronic bronchitis.


               Chronic bronchitis  


Bronchitis is inflammation of the bronchi (large and medium-sized airways) in the lungs that cause coughing.[Symptoms include coughing up sputum, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest pain. Bronchitis can be acute or chronic.

Acute bronchitis usually has a cough that lasts around three weeks and is also known as a chest cold. In more than 90% of cases, the cause is an infection. These viruses may be spread through the air when people cough or by direct contact. A small number of cases are caused by a bacterial infection such as Mycoplasma pneumonia or pertussis. Risk factors include exposure to tobacco smoke, dust, and other air pollution. Treatment of acute bronchitis typically involves rest, paracetamol  (acetaminophen), and no steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to help with the fever.

Chronic bronchitis is defined as a productive cough – one that produces sputum – that lasts for three months or more per year for at least two years. Many people with chronic bronchitis have a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Tobacco smoking is the most common cause, with a number of other factors such as air pollution and genetics playing a smaller role. Treatments include quitting smoking, vaccinations, rehabilitation, and often inhaled bronchodilators and steroids. Some people may benefit from long-term oxygen therapy.

Acute bronchitis is one of the most common diseases. About 5% of adults are affected and about 6% of children have at least one episode a year. Acute bronchitis is the most common type of bronchitis. In the United States, in 2018, 9.3 million people were diagnosed with chronic bronchitis

Acute bronchitis, also known as a chest cold, is short-term inflammation of the bronchi of the lungs.  The most common symptom is that may or may not produce sputum.  Other symptoms may include coughing up mucus, wheezing, shortness of breath fever, and chest discomfort.  Fever when present is mild The infection may last from a few to ten days.  The cough may persist for several weeks afterwards, with the total duration of symptoms usually around three weeks.  Symptoms may last for up to six weeks. 


One form of prevention is to avoid smoking and other lung irritants.  Frequent hand washing may also be protective.  Treatment for acute bronchitis usually involves rest, paracetamol (acetaminophen), and NSAIDs to help with the fever.  Cough medicine has little support for its use and is not recommended in children under the age of six.  There is tentative evidence that salbutamol may be useful in treating wheezing; however, it may result in nervousness and tremors.  Antibiotics should generally not be used.  An exception is when acute bronchitis is due to pertussis. Tentative evidence supports honey and pelargonium to help with symptoms. Getting plenty of rest and drinking enough fluids are often recommended as well. Chinese medicinal herbs are of unclear effect.

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With Regards

Rose Jackson

Auditorial Assistant

Journal of lung